Ian Ayres

Ian Ayres is a lawyer and an economist. He is the William K. Townsend Professor at Yale Law School, the Anne Urowsky Professorial Fellow in Law, and a Professor at Yale's School of Management.

Literary Works: 

  • PERVASIVE PREJUDICE?:UNCONVENTIONAL EVIDENCE OF RACE AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION (University of Chicago Press, 2002).
  • Unhappy Meals: Sex Discrimination in Toy Choice at McDonald's, WILLIAM & MARY JOURNAL OF WOMEN AND THE LAW (forthcoming 2014) (with Antonia Rose AyresBrown). 
  • Three Proposals for Regulating the Distribution of Home Equity, YALE JOURNAL ON REGULATION (forthcoming 2013) (with Joshua Mitts). 
  • The Chastain Effect: Using Title IX to Measure the Causal Effect of Participating in High School Sports on Adult Women's Social Lives, 48 JOURNAL OF SOCIO-ECONOMICS 62 6 (2014) (with Phoebe Clarke). 
  • Diversification Across Time, 39 JOURNAL OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT 73 (Winter 2013) (with Barry Nalebuff). 
  • Race Effects on eBay, working paper (2011) (with Mahzarin Banaji and Christine Jolls). 
  • Testing for Discrimination and the Problem of “Included Variable Bias,” working paper (2010). 
  • The Erasure of the Affirmative Action Debate in the Age of Obama, in THE OBAMAS AND A (POST)RACIAL AMERICA (Gregory Parks & Matthew Hughey, eds. Oxford University Press) 7 (2011). 
  •  A Study of Racially Disparate Outcomes in the Los Angeles Police Department, prepared for the ACLU of Southern California, available at www.aclu-sc.org (October 2008) (with Jonathan Borowsky). 
  • Market Power and Inequality: A Competitive Conduct Standard for Assessing When Disparate Impacts are Justified, 95 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW 669 (2007). 
  • Written Statement, Disparity Studies as Evidence of Discrimination in Federal Contracting, U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS (May 2006). 
  •  Don’t Tell, Don’t Ask: Narrow Tailoring After Grutter and Gratz, 85 TEXAS LAW REVIEW 517 (2006) (with Sydney Foster). 
  • Mark(et)ing Nondiscrimination: Privatizing ENDA with a Certification Mark, 104 MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW 1639 (2006) (with Jennifer Gerarda Brown). 
  • Institutional and Evolutionary Failure and Economic Development in the Middle East, 30 YALE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 397 (2005) (with Jonathan Macey). 
  • Does Affirmative Action Reduce the Number of Black Lawyers?, 57STANFORD LAW REVIEW 1807 (2005) (with Richard Brooks). 
  • To Insure Prejudice: Racial Disparities in Taxicab Tipping, 114 YALE LAW JOURNAL 1613 (2005) (with Fred Vars and Nasser Zakariya).
  • Discrimination in Consummated Car Purchases, in HANDBOOK ON EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION RESEARCH: RIGHTS AND REALITIES 137 (Springer 2005). 
  • The Inclusive Command: Voluntary Integration of Sexual Minorities into the U.S. Military, 103 MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW 150 (2004) (with Jennifer Gerarda Brown). 
  • Three Tests for Measuring Unjustified Disparate Impacts in Organ Transplantation: The Problem of AIl Included Variable Bias, 48 PERSPECTIVES IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE S68 (2005). 
  • Symposium Issue on IAN AYRES, PERVASIVE PREJUDICE?: UNCONVENTIONAL EVIDENCE OF RACE AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION (2002), 55 STANFORD LAW REVIEW 2267 (2003) and Is Discrimination Elusive?, 55 STANFORD LAW REVIEW 2419 (2003) 
  • Outcome Tests of Racial Disparities in Police Practices, 4 JOURNAL OF THE JUSTICE 10 RESEARCH & STATICS ASSOCIATION 131 (2002).
  • Using Public Affirmative Action to Remedy Private Discrimination (with Frederick E. Vars) Chapter 2 in NYU WORKING PAPERS ON LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW: 1998-1999 35 (2001).
  •  Economics of Affirmative Action, in 2ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION 848 (Leonard W. Levy & Kenneth L. Karst, eds., 2d ed. 2000) 
  • Discrediting the Free Market, 66 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LAW REVIEW 273 (1999). 
  • When Does Private Discrimination Justify Public Affirmative Action? 1998 COLUMBIA LAW REVIEW 1577 (1998) (with Fredrick E. Vars). 
  • Narrow Tailoring, 43 UCLA LAW REVIEW 1781 (1996). 
  • Pursuing Deficit Reduction Through Diversity: How Affirmative Action at the FCC Increased Auction Competition, 48 STANFORD LAW REVIEW 761 (1996) (with Peter Cramton).
  • Further Evidence of Discrimination in New Car Negotiations and Estimates of Its Cause, 94 MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW 109 (1995). 
  • Race and Gender Discrimination in Negotiation For the Purchase of a New Car, 84 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW 304 (1995) (with Peter Siegelman). 
  • Alternative Grounds: Epstein's Discrimination Analysis in Other Market Settings, 31 UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO LAW REVIEW 67 (1994). 
  • A Market Test for Race Discrimination in Bail Setting, 46 STANFORD LAW REVIEW 987 (1994) (with Joel Waldfogel). 
  • Racial Equity in Renal Transplantation: The Disparate Impact of HLA-Based Allocation, 270 JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 1352 (1993) (with Robert Gaston, Laura Dooley and Arnold Diethelm). 
  • Unequal Racial Access to Kidney Transplantation, 46 VANDERBILT LAW REVIEW 805 (1993) (with Laura Dooley and Robert Gaston). 
  • Fair Driving: Gender and Race Discrimination in Retail Car Negotiations, 104 HARVARD LAW REVIEW 817 (1991).